Greenhouse Gases


Carbon dioxide

In the form of dry ice, carbon dioxide is used in cleaning processes. Eliminates the need to use harmful solvents that can damage or erode the cleaned surfaces. It is also used in the metal industry to enhance the hardness of casting molds and as a soldering agent for the antioxidant protection of weld seams. […]

United Kingdom in the European emissions trading scheme

United Kingdom in the European emissions trading scheme

The United Kingdom intends to remain in Europe's emissions trading system (ETS) at least until the end of the third trading phase from 2013-2020. This was stated by the British Energy Minister on Wednesday. The state of Britain's membership of the regime after the country's exit from the European Union in March 2019 was hitherto unclear.

Clean Energy and Clean Development Minister Claire Perry said it has not yet formally agreed, but the government wanted to secure the companies covered by the plan, at least until the end of the third phase.

It is noted that Britain is the second largest country in greenhouse gas emissions in Europe. As a result, utilities and industry are among the largest ETS buyers in the ETS. Under the greenhouse gas emissions trading scheme, these companies are charged for every tonne of carbon dioxide (CO2) they emit in the electricity production.

These companies have asked the British Government to keep the country in the system until the end of the current negotiating phase to avoid disturbances. However, the position of the companies is unanimous as to whether Britain should remain in the system after the end of this period.

United Kingdom in the European emissions trading scheme – UK Commitments

Perry said that Britain is committed to using a price for coal as a means to reduce emissions. However, it will use the country's exit from the European Union as a means of “taking advantage of the opportunity to explore if there are other opportunities” to achieve this.

The rules of the ETS ETS are set by the European Parliament. They are then imposed by the European Court of Justice. Industry experts have said that it could be politically difficult for the UK to justify the country's stay in the system.

Britain has a legally binding target to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 80% from 1990 levels by 2050. This includes fossil-based power plants,

Source: World Energy News magazine, by Susanna Twidale

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Climate change

Kyoto Protocol – Climate Change

1 Introduction

The Kyoto Protocol is implemented in accordance with the procedures laid down in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Adopted at the Third Meeting of the Parties (Kyoto, December 1997). Under the Protocol, each party is committed to quantifying emissions and reducing them in order to ensure sustainable development.

The Protocol aims at a total reduction in emissions of at least 5% over the five-year period 2008-2012 compared to 1990 levels. To achieve this, developed States Parties to the Protocol are invited to ensure that their emissions for 6 total gases, will not exceed the limits set by the Protocol. The Protocol entered into force in 2005.

Greece signed the Protocol in April 1998 alongside the other EU Member States. and the European Commission. All the EU Member States ratified the Protocol in May 2002. Greece adopted it on 30 May 2002 by Law 3017/2002 (Government Gazette A'117).

Under the Protocol, the EU and its Member States have an obligation to reduce emissions by 8% over the period 2008-2012 compared to base year (1990) emissions.

Pursuant to Article 4 of the Protocol, which allows for joint fulfillment of the obligations under the Protocol, the Council of Environment Ministers of the EU of 4 March 2002, an agreement was reached on a Council Decision on the “Approval, on behalf of the European Community, of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and the joint fulfillment of commitments thereunder”.

This decision was notified to the Convention Secretariat in Bonn. This was the same day that the ratification of the Protocol was deposited with the depositary (New York).

Greece, according to this decision, pledges to limit its emissions increase to + 25% for 2008-2012. This commitment concerns the country's contribution to the EU's common goal. for an 8% reduction in emissions over the same period. To meet this commitment, our country has developed the National Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Program for the period 2000-2010.

Key points of the Protocol

Developed States are committed to reducing their overall emissions by at least 5%. This target refers to six greenhouse gases:

  • carbon dioxide (CO2),
  • methane (CH4) ,
  • nitrous oxide (N2O),
  • hydrofluorocarbons,
  • fully fluorinated hydrocarbons,
  • sulfur hexafluoride.

The objective of each country should be achieved in the period 2008-2012.

Ability to fulfill the obligations jointly

States may declare a common fulfillment of their obligations through an agreement to conclude, recording each Member State's emission emission obligation, which must be submitted together with the instrument of ratification.

Possibility to fulfill part of the obligations through three flexible mechanisms

The Kyoto Protocol provides for the possibility of fulfilling part of the obligations through three mechanisms: joint implementation, “clean” growth mechanism and emissions trading. The overarching requirement is that fulfilling the obligations through these mechanisms should be complementary to national actions to achieve the objective.

Adoption of policies and measures

The Protocol binds its States Parties to the implementation or adoption of policies and measures to achieve the objective of the Protocol, in accordance with the national treaties of each State. It also includes an indicative list of specific measures that can be applied by the States Parties.

Acceptance of recipients (sinks)

The Protocol contains provisions for taking into account the sinks (sinks), which, although they need further study and clarification, provide in principle the possibility of taking carbon dioxide intake from forests and cultivated land into account in reducing emissions.

Strict compliance status

The Protocol provides for the establishment of a strict compliance regime. There are no quantitative targets for developing countries. Ninety days after the ratification of the Protocol and Russia, the two necessary conditions for the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol, ie ratified by at least 55 States Parties to the Convention, have now been met. climate change, including those parts of Annex I to the Convention (developed countries) accounting for at least 55% of the total carbon dioxide emissions of these countries in 1990.

Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol

The Conference of the Parties (COP) also acts as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (CMP). When the COP acts on the CMP, the States that are not party to the Protocol are able to participate in the CMP as observers but do not have the right to make decisions. The CMP's duties on the Protocol are similar to those made by the COP for the Convention. The CMP meets annually at the same time as the COP.

The first meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol was held in Montreal, Canada in December 2005, in conjunction with the 11th Meeting of the Conference of the Parties (COP 11).

Revision of the Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol was revised in 2012 with the agreement of the parties in Doha, Qatar. The key points of the review include:

  • New commitments for the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol Annex I. The Contracting Parties have agreed to enter into commitments for a second commitment period. This period is set for the period from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2020.
  • A revised list of greenhouse gases (GHGs) to be reported by the parties during the second commitment period is included.
  • Amendments are included in several articles of the Kyoto Protocol. These amendments relate specifically to issues of the first commitment period that had to be updated for the second commitment period.

On 21 December 2012, the amendment was transmitted by the Secretary-General of the United Nations, acting as guardian, to all the parties to the Kyoto Protocol in accordance with Articles 20 and 21 of the Protocol.

During the first commitment period 2008 – 2013, 37 industrialized countries and the European Community pledged to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by an average of five per cent over 1990 levels.

During the second commitment period (2013-2020), the Parties undertook to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 18% below 1990 levels during the eight-year period from 2013 to 2020. However, the parties' the second commitment period is different from the first.

The full text of the original Protocol

Kyoto Protocol
File type : pdf
File size : 75 KB
Date of issue : 75 KB

Adoption of the Kyoto Protocol - Government Gazette A / 117 / 30.05.2002
File type : pdf
File size : 3 MB
Date of issue : 3 MB

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