Greenhouse Gasses

Evolution of emissions

The Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was agreed in 1997. This protocol set legally binding targets for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions or emission allowances for 37 industrialized countries for the first-period commitment from 2008 to 2012. This has led to the need for policies to be set for countries to respond to Kyoto commitments.

In March 2000, the European Commission presented a Green Paper entitled “Greenhouse gas Emissions Trading system in the European Union”, with some first ideas for the EU ETS.

Greece signed the Protocol in April 1998 alongside the other EU Member States. and the European Commission. All Member States of the EU ratified the Protocol in May 2002. Greece ratified it by Law 3017/2002 (Government Gazette A'117 / 30.05.2002). Pursuant to Article 4 of the Protocol, which allows for joint fulfillment of the obligations under the Protocol, the Council of Environment Ministers of the EU of 4 March 2002, an agreement was reached in a Council Decision approving on behalf of the European Community the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and jointly responding to its respective obligations.

The implementation of the Kyoto Protocol provided for the allocation of mandatory emission targets per Member State and the parallel operation of the Emissions Trading System (Emissions Trading System). This system allows for the purchase of rights between the parties involved. The international operation of the Rights Trading system begins in 2008. It started in the European Union from 2005-2007.

This decision was notified to the Secretariat of the Convention in Bonn on the same day that the instruments of ratification of the Protocol were deposited with the Depositary (New York).

Greece, according to this decision, pledges to limit its emissions increase to + 25% over the period 2008-2012 in order to contribute to the EU's common target of an 8% reduction in emissions for the same period.

To meet this commitment, our country has developed a National Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Program for the period 2000-2010.

Greenhouse gases

The greenhouse gases (GHGs) whose concentrations are recorded and their emissions monitored are :

As Indirect greenhouse gases are considered the following:

  • Carbon monoxide (CO)
  • Nitrogen oxides (NOx)
  • Organic substances (NMVOCs)
  • Sulfur oxides (SOx)
Greenhouse Gasses

Fluorinated gases, together with carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrogen monoxide (N2O), form the group of gases known as “greenhouse gases”. The emissions of these gases are controlled by the Kyoto Protocol under the United Nations Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC).

Base year

Under the Kyoto Protocol, the GHG greenhouse gas emissions in the “base year” are the starting and reporting point for monitoring the progress of domestic emissions of each EU-15 member country for all Member States that have signed the Protocol of Kyoto.

The EU of 15 have made a joint commitment to reduce emissions by 8% between 2008-2012 compared to emissions in the so-called “base year”. The base year is not a “year” in itself, but corresponds to an emission level that will result in emission reductions.

The EU-15 Member States have shared the burden of achieving the target – 8%, allowing individual Member States to achieve different degrees of emission reduction compared to base year emissions. Consequently, the progress towards the targets for each Member State starts from its own level of individual time-based emissions.

For carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrogen oxide (N2O) 1990 is used as the ‘base year' for all EU-15 Member States. However, for fluorinated gases, EU-15 Member States may choose to use emission levels in 1995. Twelve of the 15 Member States chose to use 1995 as the reference year for fluorinated gas emissions.

For the EU-15, base emissions were slightly higher than 1990 levels. Progress towards the common target of 8% is therefore better. In practice, EU-15 base emissions can be considered close to 1990 emissions.

Diversification of European Union objectives

The EU-28 is not targeting the Kyoto Protocol and therefore a comprehensive base year can not be applied in this case to any discussion or report on progress towards achieving the Kyoto targets. In March 2007, the Council of the European Union decided that the EU would firmly commit itself to an independent commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 20% by 2020 compared to 1990. However, the relevant “base year” for the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol shall be taken into account when distributing the burden between the Member States.

Greece, as a member of the European Union and in the framework of the joint fulfillment of the commitments, has undertaken to limit the increase of greenhouse gas emissions in the period 2008-2012 to 25% compared to the base year emissions. The base year for CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions is taken in 1990, while for PFCs, HFCs and SF6 are taken in 1995.

Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide

What is Carbon Dioxide

CO2 is the main factor responsible for the development of the greenhouse effect. Carbon dioxide enters the atmosphere due to human activity through the burning of fossil fuels. Includes coal, gas, oil, solid waste, burning forests and timber products. It is also produced as a result of certain chemical reactions in production processes such as the production of concrete. It is removed from the atmosphere by its absorption from plants through the biological carbon cycle.

Carbon dioxide appears naturally in the atmosphere as part of the Earth's carbon cycle. This cycle represents the natural circulation of carbon between the atmosphere, oceans, soil, plants, and animals. Human activities change the carbon cycle by adding more CO2 to the atmosphere and affecting the ability of natural sinks, such as forests, to remove it from the atmosphere.

Emission source of carbon dioxide

While CO2 emissions come from a variety of natural sources, CO2-related with human activities are responsible for the warming in the atmosphere from the Industrial Revolution (~ 1750) and beyond. Today, it represents at least 80% of the total GHG emissions.

Many billion tons of carbon are exchanged naturally each year between the atmosphere, the oceans and the terrestrial flora. Carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere showed deviations of less than 10% over the 10,000 years prior to the industrial revolution.

The use of carbon-based fossil fuels has increased up to 12 times in the 20th century, while carbon dioxide concentrations have increased significantly in the atmosphere by more than 30%.

At least 25 billion tonnes of CO2 a year are emitted in the atmosphere. CO2 can remain in the atmosphere for 50 to 200 years depending on how it is recycled and returned to the ground and oceans.

Emission levels of carbon dioxide (CO2)

In the European Union of 28, including Iceland, total CO2 emissions in 2015 to 3,640.61 million tonnes Mt CO2 -eq. CO2 emissions for the same year (2015) account for 81.8% of total greenhouse gas emissions in the European Union.

In 2015, two-thirds of global CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industrial processes are due to China (with a 29% share of the world total). This is followed by the United States (14%), the European Union (EU-28), India (7%), the Russian Federation (5%) and Japan (3.5%). For the first time, China effectively cut its emissions by 0.7% lower than in 2014. Emissions in the Russian Federation, the US, and Japan also dropped by 3.4%, 2.6%, and 2.2% respectively. The increase in CO2 emissions in India continued, at a rate of 5.1% in 2015.

In the European Union, CO2 emissions from fossil fuels and industrial processes showed a slight increase of 1.3% after four years of significant reductions (13.4% overall in 2011-2014). This is explained by the 4.6% increase in gas consumption, mainly for the warmer winter of 2015 compared to 2014. Another reason is the increase in diesel consumption in transport by 4%. At the same time, CO2 emissions related to electricity generation decreased by 0.6%, while electricity generation increased by 1.3%.

This is due to the much larger share of renewable electricity, mainly hydro, wind and solar energy, in total electricity production in 2015. (29%, up by 4.4% compared to 2014) and a decrease of 1.8 % consumption.

The main areas of human activity involved in its production are:

The Power Sector

Το 2015 η καύση ορυκτών καυσίμων για την παραγωγή ηλεκτρικής ενέργειας ήταν η μεγαλύτερη πηγή εκπομπών CO2 στην Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση. Οι εκπομπές CO2 έχουν μειωθεί σημαντικά από το 1990. Ειδικότερα, η ειδική εκπομπή gCO2 /kWh στην Ευρωπαϊκή Ενωση (emission intensity), έχει μεωθεί σημαντικά από 431 gCO2/kWh το 1990 σε 275,9 gCO2/kWh το 2014 – ποσοστό μείωσης ~ 36%.

Αντίστοιχα στην Ελλάδα η παρουσιαζόμενη συνολικά μείωση της ειδικής εκπομπής gCO2/kWh ανήλθε συνολικά στο ποσοστό 30,84% μεταβαλλόμενη από 1200 σε 829,9 gCO2/kWh την αντίστοιχη περίοδο.

Η παραγωγή ηλεκτρικής ενέργειας έχει γίνει πιο αποδοτική στην Ευρωπαϊκή Ενωση των 28 τα τελευταία χρόνια. Η μέση απόδοση αυξήθηκε από 36% το 1990 σε 44% το 2014.

Η αποδοτικότητα εξαρτάται κυρίως από το μείγμα των χρησιμοποιούμενων καυσίμων (ορυκτών, πυρηνικών ή ανανεώσιμων πηγών ενέργειας) καθώς και το μίγμα συμπαραγωγής ισχύος και θερμότητας:

  • οι υψηλές αποδόσεις σχετίζονται με την υδροηλεκτρική και την αιολική ενέργεια (απόδοση 100%, δεδομένου ότι η ηλεκτρική ενέργεια είναι η πρώτη μετρήσιμη πρωτογενής ισοδύναμη ενέργεια για τις εν λόγω τεχνολογίες ανανεώσιμων πηγών ενέργειας).

  • οι χαμηλές αποδόσεις (<30%) συσχετίζονται κυρίως με τις παλαιές μονάδες ηλεκτροπαραγωγής που χρησιμοποιούν ορυκτά καύσιμα, με πυρηνικούς σταθμούς ηλεκτροπαραγωγής (συνήθως 33%, με θερμότητα την πρώτη μετρήσιμη πρωτογενή ισοδύναμη ενέργεια), την άμεση καύση βιομάζας (20-25%) ή γεωθερμική ενέργεια.
  • μεταξύ 1990 και 2014, το μερίδιο της ηλεκτρικής ενέργειας στην παραγωγή των συμβατικών θερμοηλεκτρικών σταθμών και της τηλεθέρμανσης (ηλεκτρισμός και θερμότητα) αυξήθηκε ελαφρά σε συνδυασμό με την αύξηση της αποτελεσματικότητας.

Transport Sector

Road transport sector

The road transport sector accounts for about one-fifth of total CO2 emissions in the European Union. These emissions are still 20.5% higher than 1990 levels. The transport sector is the only sector in the European Union where greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise. In 2015, the transport sector accounted for 25.8% of total EU greenhouse gas emissions.

Emissions in the transport sector, including aviation, but excluding international navigation in 2015, were about 23% higher than 1990 levels. These emissions increased by almost 2% compared to 2014. International aviation experienced the largest percentage increase in greenhouse gas emissions greenhouse gas emissions by + 105% compared to 1990, followed by international shipping (+ 22%) and road transport (+ 19%).

The Industry Sector

Many industrial processes emit CO2 due to combustion of fossil fuels. At the same time, several industrial processes produce CO2 through chemical reactions that do not include combustion. This category includes, for example, the production of mineral products such as cement, the production of metallic materials such as iron and steel and the production of chemicals.

Eurostat estimates that in 2016 carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuels fell by 0.4% in the EU compared to the previous year. CO2 emissions contribute significantly to global warming and account for about 80% of all EU greenhouse gas emissions. They are affected by factors such as climate conditions, economic growth, population size, transport, and industrial activities. Various EU initiatives on energy efficiency aim to reduce CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions.

It should be noted that many industrial processes use electricity to cause indirect increases in emissions from electricity generation.

In GREECE, CO2 emissions of CO2 accounted for 78.32% of total GHG emissions in the country in 2015, excluding LULUCF (Land Use, Land Use, Change, and Forestry) emissions. CO2 emissions fell by 10.09% compared to 1990 levels.

Long-Term Greenhouse Gas Evolution

The situation in the European Union

In 2015, greenhouse gas emissions in the EU of 28 dropped by 22% compared to 1990 levels. This represents an absolute reduction of 1265 Mt CO2-equivalent by maintaining within the prescribed EU objectives.

These targets include reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 20% by 2020 and by 40% by 2030 compared with 1990 levels. Amongst the Member States, Germany recorded the highest emission levels in 2015 (926 , 5 Mt CO2 – equivalent), representing 21% of the total emissions of the European Union. Here are the United Kingdom and France.

On the other hand, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia (-58%, -56% and -55% respectively) showed the largest decrease compared to 1990 levels. Similarly, Cyprus (+ 44%), Spain (+ 19%) and Portugal + 18% respectively showed the largest increase in emissions compared to 1990.

The first estimates for 2016 show that EU emissions reductions observed since 2005 continue, albeit at a slower pace than in previous years. Total EU emissions in 2016 are estimated at 4 423 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (Mt CO2eq). This figure includes indirect CO2 emissions and emissions from international aviation, but excludes net emissions from land use, land use change and forestry (LULUCF) and emissions from international shipping.

This represents a reduction in emissions of 28.7 Mt CO2eq (-0.7%) between 2015 and 2016 and a decrease of 22.6% between 1990 and 2016. Excluding emissions from international aviation, emissions in 2016 will rise to 4 279 Mt CO2eq, which also represents a decrease of 0.7% below 2015, but a decrease of 24.2% since 1990.

The 0.7% reduction in emissions is inconsistent with GDP growth of 1.9% over the same period. This has resulted in a reduction in the EU's GDP emissions in 2016 and has contributed to the further decoupling of greenhouse gas emissions from economic growth.

After a reduction period between 2010 and 2014, primary energy consumption (including all fuels directly burned or transformed to produce electricity and heat) increased for the second year of operation in 2016 (0.9%). This is mainly due to the increased use of natural gas and liquid fuels. The contribution of both fossil fuels and renewable fuels to the energy mix increased in 2016, although the contribution of nuclear power declined slightly.

Εκπομπές αερίων του Θερμοκηπίου στην ΕΕ-28

Changes in greenhouse gas emissions by activity area

Fossil fuels power plant

By field of activity, the greatest absolute reduction in emissions in the EU in the energy sector.

Emissions from energy supply and use accounted for around 78% of total EU emissions in 2016.

These emissions decreased by 23.9 Mt CO2eq (-0.7%) in 2016 compared to 2015, despite a slight increase in energy consumption in the EU in 2016. The significant reduction in emissions from the energy industries (53.9 Mt CO2eq), including emissions from power stations and refineries, was partly offset by increases in emissions from final energy users, particularly in the transport sector (18.6 Mt CO2eq) in the domestic and commercial sectors (19.0 Mt CO2eq).

Emissions from the EU industrial sectors (excluding energy) decreased in 2016 compared to 2015. Emissions related to energy consumption by industry decreased by 6.3 Mt CO2eq (-1.3%), while industrial processes declined by 0.8%. The latter reflects a reduction in emissions from the metal industry by 3.0% and 2.7% from the chemical industry. At the same time, emissions from the mineral industry increased by 0.5% and emissions from the use of fluorinated gases as substitutes for ozone-depleting substances also increased by 0.5% in the EU.

Changes in greenhouse gas emissions in the Member States

Member States were divided into two equal groups. In half of these, greenhouse gas emissions declined in 2016 compared to 2015. For the rest, they increased.

The largest absolute reduction in emissions was observed in the United Kingdom (-30.1 Mt CO2eq compared to 2015). This decrease is mainly due to the fact that the consumption of solid fossil fuels has been halved. This decrease was partially offset by increased oil and gas consumption. In particular, there was a shift from the use of coal to natural gas in the electricity sector. Significant absolute reductions were also observed in Spain (-11.8 Mt CO2eq) and in Romania (-3.9 Mt CO2eq).

The largest relative decrease in emissions compared to the previous year was recorded in Malta (-13.5%). Followed by the United Kingdom (-6.0%) and Bulgaria (-5.0%).

The largest absolute increase in emissions was observed in France (+6.0 Mt CO2eq). It reflects the greatest energy consumption of all sectors in the country. Gas consumption increased by 9%. At the same time, the consumption of liquid and solid fuels declined by 2%. A significant increase in emissions was also observed in Poland (+5.1 Mt CO2eq) and Germany (+3.6 Mt CO2eq).

The largest relative increases in emissions were recorded in Estonia (+ 6.9%), Finland (+ 5.8%) and Cyprus (+ 4.9%).

Statistical data

Table 1 - Total Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the European Union (EU-28) for the period 1990-2015.

Excluding emissions from international shipping and net CO 2 emissions from land use, land use change and LULUCF forestry activities are excluded. Includes indirect CO2 emissions.

Συνολικές Εκπομπές Αερίων του Θερμοκηπίου στην Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση (EU-28) για την περίοδο 1990 - 2015
EU-28 Συνολικές Εκπομπές Αερίων του Θερμοκηπίου ΔΙΟΞΕΙΔΙΟ ΤΟΥ ΑΝΘΡΑΚΑ ΜΕΘΑΝΙΟ ΥΔΡΟΦΘΟΡΑΝΘΑΚΕΣ ΥΠΟΞΕΙΔΙΟ ΤΟΥ ΑΖΩΤΟΥ ΥΠΕΡΦΘΟΡΑΝΘΡΑΚΕΣ ΦΘΟΡΙΟΥΧΟ ΘΕΙΟ ΤΡΙΦΘΟΡΙΟΥΧΟ ΑΖΩΤΟ Απροσδιόριστες Εκπομπές
Mt CO2eq CO2 CH4 HFC N2O PFC SF6 NF3 HFC & PFC
1990 5.716,36 4.530,47 728,44 29,13 385,60 25,87 11,00 0,024 5,84
1991 5.614,25 4.469,20 708,57 29,15 366,98 23,50 11,46 0,025 5,37
1992 5.442,69 4.331,91 689,50 31,57 352,86 19,18 12,28 0,027 5,35
1993 5.346,86 4.252,29 680,38 34,50 343,11 18,26 12,97 0,029 5,34
1994 5.327,97 4.242,75 663,61 39,14 345,36 17,61 14,14 0,032 5,33
1995 5.381,36 4.288,33 662,74 43,73 348,38 17,28 15,19 0,100 5,61
1996 5.494,52 4.394,73 659,33 50,93 353,64 16,60 15,06 0,094 4,13
1997 5.398,60 4.310,01 646,06 58,79 350,68 15,40 13,58 0,102 3,98
1998 5.360,35 4.308,97 630,86 60,44 328,74 14,57 12,84 0,077 3,85
1999 5.255,73 4.248,13 618,80 52,10 308,23 14,19 10,54 0,075 3,65
2000 5.270,85 4.280,20 606,50 53,22 306,25 12,19 10,59 0,103 1,80
2001 5.324,66 4.347,77 599,35 52,53 302,66 10,84 9,73 0,082 1,70
2002 5.278,89 4.322,56 585,20 56,30 291,70 12,56 8,59 0,134 1,84
2003 5.366,91 4.419,27 576,12 63,06 288,89 10,28 8,10 0,147 1,04
2004 5.375,40 4.438,89 558,00 66,94 293,70 8,73 8,11 0,132 0,89
2005 5.345,21 4.422,97 546,51 73,27 286,08 7,35 7,92 0,156 0,95
2006 5.338,33 4.434,55 535,26 77,67 275,86 6,56 7,49 0,141 0,80
2007 5.293,76 4.393,18 526,23 83,84 276,45 6,09 7,08 0,163 0,73
2008 5.179,48 4.294,19 515,25 91,07 265,97 5,22 6,71 0,149 0,93
2009 4.803,59 3.945,34 502,39 94,21 250,69 3,35 6,31 0,077 1,23
2010 4.909,52 4.063,76 492,20 102,22 240,41 3,88 6,43 0,119 0,49
2011 4.758,66 3.924,27 482,59 104,68 236,28 4,25 6,22 0,127 0,26
2012 4.693,24 3.864,51 477,00 107,94 233,45 3,70 6,27 0,093 0,28
2013 4.598,85 3.779,15 465,10 110,21 233,89 3,96 6,19 0,068 0,29
2014 4.423,74 3.606,38 458,46 112,69 236,27 3,50 6,14 0,074 0,22
2015 4.451,81 3.640,61 456,04 107,61 237,25 3,58 6,41 0,069 0,24
Προέλευση Δεδομένων: Ευρωπαϊκό Γραφείο Περιβάλλοντος - European Environment Agency (εκπομπές σε εκατομμύρια ισοδύναμους τόνους CO2 -equivalent. Περιλαμβάνονται οι έμμεσες εκπομπές CO2, συμπεριλαμβανομένης της διεθνούς αεροπλοΐας) Δεν περιλαμβάνονται οι εκπομπές από την διεθνή ναυτιλία και οι καθαρές εκπομπές CO2 από την χρήση γης, αλλαγής χρήσης γης και δασικές δραστηριότητες LULUCF

Table 2 - Total Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the European Union (EU-28) and Iceland for the period 1990-2015.

Includes indirect CO2 emissions. LULUCF emissions and absorptions are not included

Συνολικές Εκπομπές Αερίων του Θερμοκηπίου (EU-28 + Ισλανδία) για την περίοδο 1990 - 2015
Συνολικές Εκπομπές Αερίων του Θερμοκηπίου στην Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση (EU-28) και Ισλανδίας για την περίοδο 1990 - 2015.
EU-28 και Ισλανδία Συνολικές Εκπομπές Αερίων του Θερμοκηπίου ΔΙΟΞΕΙΔΙΟ ΤΟΥ ΑΝΘΡΑΚΑ - CO2 ΜΕΘΑΝΙΟ - CΗ4 ΥΔΡΟΦΘΟΡΑΝΘΑΚΕΣ - HFCs ΥΠΟΞΕΙΔΙΟ ΤΟΥ ΑΖΩΤΟΥ - N2O ΥΠΕΡΦΘΟΡΑΝΘΡΑΚΕΣ - PFCs ΦΘΟΡΙΟΥΧΟ ΘΕΙΟ - SF6 ΤΡΙΦΘΟΡΙΟΥΧΟ ΑΖΩΤΟ - NF3 Απροσδιόριστες Εκπομπές HFCs και PFCs
1990 5.653,88 4.466,52 729,47 29,13 385,53 26,37 11,00 0,024 5,84
1991 5.552,66 4.406,23 709,61 29,15 366,92 23,91 11,46 0,025 5,37
1992 5.375,43 4.263,57 690,54 31,58 352,72 19,37 12,28 0,027 5,35
1993 5.275,38 4.179,85 681,42 34,50 342,93 18,35 12,97 0,029 5,34
1994 5.252,97 4.166,84 664,66 39,15 345,16 17,66 14,14 0,032 5,33
1995 5.301,90 4.207,98 663,79 43,75 348,13 17,35 15,19 0,100 5,61
1996 5.411,17 4.310,55 660,37 50,96 353,36 16,63 15,07 0,094 4,13
1997 5.311,17 4.221,70 647,10 58,84 350,37 15,50 13,58 0,102 3,98
1998 5.266,16 4.213,81 631,91 60,51 328,37 14,78 12,85 0,077 3,85
1999 5.153,56 4.145,06 619,86 52,18 307,80 14,39 10,55 0,075 3,65
2000 5.162,39 4.170,99 607,54 53,31 305,74 12,34 10,59 0,103 1,80
2001 5.217,75 4.240,13 600,39 52,62 302,15 10,95 9,73 0,082 1,70
2002 5.174,91 4.217,88 586,24 56,40 291,18 12,65 8,60 0,134 1,84
2003 5.258,31 4.310,06 577,11 63,18 288,32 10,35 8,11 0,147 1,04
2004 5.259,15 4.322,12 558,99 67,07 293,06 8,78 8,11 0,132 0,89
2005 5.220,97 4.298,27 547,49 73,42 285,37 7,38 7,92 0,156 0,95
2006 5.209,12 4.304,48 536,31 77,83 275,12 6,95 7,49 0,141 0,80
2007 5.160,40 4.259,01 527,30 84,01 275,68 6,42 7,09 0,163 0,73
2008 5.045,67 4.159,48 516,31 91,27 265,19 5,63 6,71 0,149 0,93
2009 4.680,00 3.821,00 503,44 94,44 249,97 3,53 6,31 0,077 1,23
2010 4.785,46 3.938,96 493,24 102,49 239,68 4,05 6,44 0,119 0,49
2011 4.630,05 3.795,10 483,60 104,94 235,49 4,32 6,22 0,127 0,26
2012 4.567,13 3.737,79 477,96 108,23 232,70 3,79 6,28 0,093 0,28
2013 4.471,634 3.651,354 466,055 110,512 233,121 4,047 6,191 0,068 0,285
2014 4.294,382 3.476,428 459,413 112,997 235,509 3,601 6,138 0,074 0,220
2015 4.317,435 3.505,674 456,986 107,937 236,432 3,680 6,415 0,069 0,242
Προέλευση Δεδομένων: Ευρωπαϊκό Γραφείο Περιβάλλοντος - European Environment Agency - EU-28 + Ισλανδία. (εκπομπές σε εκατομμύρια ισοδύναμους τόνους CO2 - equivalent. Περιλαμβάνονται οι έμμεσες εκπομπές CO2. Δεν συμπεριλαμβάνονται εκπομπές - απορροφήσεις LULUCF.

Table 3 - Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the European Union (EU-28) and Iceland for the period 1990 - 2015. No indirect CO2 emissions

LULUCF emissions and absorptions are not included

Πίνακας 1.3 - Συνολικές Εκπομπές Αερίων του Θερμοκηπίου στην Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση (EU-28) και Ισλανδίας για την περίοδο 1990 - 2015
ΠΙΝΑΚΑΣ 1.3: Συνολικές Εκπομπές Αερίων του Θερμοκηπίου στην Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση (EU-28) και Ισλανδίας για την περίοδο 1990 - 2015
Πίνακας 1.3 - Συνολικές Εκπομπές Αερίων του Θερμοκηπίου στην Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση (EU-28) και Ισλανδίας για την περίοδο 1990 - 2015
ΠΙΝΑΚΑΣ 1.3: Συνολικές Εκπομπές Αερίων του Θερμοκηπίου στην Ευρωπαϊκή Ένωση (EU-28) και Ισλανδίας για την περίοδο 1990 - 2015
EU-28 Συνολικές Εκπομπές Αερίων του Θερμοκηπίου ΔΙΟΞΕΙΔΙΟ ΤΟΥ ΑΝΘΡΑΚΑ - CO2 ΜΕΘΑΝΙΟ - CΗ4 ΥΔΡΟΦΘΟΡΑΝΘΑΚΕΣ - HFCs ΥΠΟΞΕΙΔΙΟ ΤΟΥ ΑΖΩΤΟΥ - N2O ΥΠΕΡΦΘΟΡΑΝΘΡΑΚΕΣ - PFCs ΦΘΟΡΙΟΥΧΟ ΘΕΙΟ - SF6 ΤΡΙΦΘΟΡΙΟΥΧΟ ΑΖΩΤΟ - NF3 Απροσδιόριστες Εκπομπές HFCs και PFCs
1990 5.649,488 4.462,123 729,474 29,126 385,532 26,365 11,004 0,024 5,841
1991 5.548,393 4.401,962 709,607 29,149 366,915 23,907 11,459 0,025 5,369
1992 5.371,255 4.259,399 690,539 31,575 352,716 19,366 12,283 0,027 5,350
1993 5.271,335 4.175,802 681,421 34,500 342,927 18,347 12,968 0,029 5,340
1994 5.249,176 4.163,045 664,662 39,145 345,162 17,660 14,143 0,032 5,327
1995 5.298,185 4.204,265 663,786 43,752 348,133 17,347 15,194 0,100 5,609
1996 5.407,530 4.306,914 660,369 50,963 353,363 16,634 15,065 0,094 4,128
1997 5.307,652 4.218,184 647,095 58,839 350,368 15,500 13,582 0,102 3,983
1998 5.262,867 4.210,523 631,911 60,510 328,368 14,778 12,846 0,077 3,853
1999 5.150,514 4.142,011 619,860 52,183 307,798 14,390 10,546 0,075 3,651
2000 5.159,686 4.168,278 607,541 53,306 305,736 12,338 10,587 0,103 1,796
2001 5.215,192 4.237,565 600,394 52,622 302,151 10,948 9,733 0,082 1,698
2002 5.172,465 4.215,443 586,238 56,395 291,178 12,645 8,596 0,134 1,835
2003 5.255,933 4.307,684 577,107 63,177 288,316 10,354 8,107 0,147 1,042
2004 5.256,860 4.319,831 558,988 67,070 293,058 8,780 8,114 0,132 0,887
2005 5.218,621 4.295,917 547,493 73,423 285,372 7,384 7,924 0,156 0,952
2006 5.206,810 4.302,172 536,308 77,827 275,115 6,951 7,493 0,141 0,803
2007 5.158,175 4.256,780 527,301 84,014 275,682 6,424 7,085 0,163 0,727
2008 5.043,526 4.157,334 516,310 91,265 265,194 5,631 6,711 0,149 0,933
2009 4.678,018 3.819,014 503,443 94,442 249,971 3,533 6,309 0,077 1,229
2010 4.783,450 3.936,944 493,238 102,494 239,679 4,050 6,436 0,119 0,489
2011 4.628,140 3.793,188 483,595 104,938 235,490 4,320 6,219 0,127 0,262
2012 4.565,286 3.735,954 477,958 108,233 232,699 3,794 6,277 0,093 0,278
2013 4.469,917 3.649,637 466,055 110,512 233,121 4,047 6,191 0,068 0,285
2014 4.292,735 3.474,781 459,413 112,997 235,509 3,601 6,138 0,074 0,220
2015 4.315,773 3.504,013 456,986 107,937 236,432 3,680 6,415 0,069 0,242
Προέλευση Δεδομένων: Ευρωπαϊκό Γραφείο Περιβάλλοντος - European Environment Agency - EU-28 + Ισλανδία. (εκπομπές σε εκατομμύρια ισοδύναμους τόνους CO2 - equivalent. ΧΩΡΙΣ έμμεσες εκπομπές CO2. Δεν συμπεριλαμβάνονται εκπομπές - απορροφήσεις LULUCF

Bibliography – References

Analysis of key trends and drivers in greenhouse gas emissions in the EU between 1990 and 2015 – European Environment Agency Report , ISBN 978-92-9213-861-5

Annual European Union greenhouse gas inventory 1990–2015 and inventory report 2017, as submitted in UNFCCC Secretariat (May 2017) by European Environment Agency,

Early estimates of CO2 emissions from Energy use in EU by Eurostat Newsrelease 79/2017 – 4 May 2017,

Energy, transport and environment indicators – 2017 Edition by Eurostat (Statistical Books),

Trends and Projections in GREECE 2017 –  Country factsheet, by European Environment Agency,

EU greenhouse gas emissions from transport increase for the second year in a row, Newsletter by European Environment Agency Report (2017),

CH4 Emissions from Solid Waste Disposal, by Jens E. Frøiland Jensen (Norconsult) and R. Pipatti (VTT Energy, Finland)

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