Liquefied petroleum gas is currently widely used due to the advantages it provides as a source of energy but also as a raw material for the production of other products. Note that there should be no confusion between Liquified Petroleum Gases, Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). The composition of the latter is based on natural gas with the main chemical component methane (CH4).
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is not a major mining product. They are predominantly by-products or mixed with other hydrocarbons (gaseous or liquid). They come from the extraction of crude oil and natural gas and the processing of crude oil into petroleum products at refineries. Globally, about 60% of LPG comes from crude oil and gas extraction, while the remaining 40% of refinery output.
LPG production at refineries is the main process for the European Union. By contrast, natural gas processing is the main source of LPG for North America and the Middle East.
In the processing (refining) of crude oil, gases forming LPG are the first products produced by the fractional column. Here are heavier fractions such as gasoline, oil, kerosene and fuel oil. .Gas products account for about 3% of the total volume of products.
Natural gas is a mixture of gases (mainly hydrocarbons), the main component being methane (90% content). Propane and butane make up the remaining 5 ~ 10% and move away from natural gas to natural gas processing plants. It is then transported through pipelines, tankers, etc. to terminals or for consumption through natural gas networks.
Gases that occur during the extraction of crude oil are known as Associated Petroleum Gas (APG). In the production of natural gas, components of liquid hydrocarbons are often exported together with natural gas. These components are known as Natural Gas Liquids (NGL). Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is extracted from APG and NGL. Liquefied Natural Gas is particularly important in the global oil and gas market. They account for about 15% of global crude oil production and 20% of global natural gas production.
The international gas industry has expanded rapidly over the last decade and has undergone many profound changes. New LPG markets have emerged in many locations and LPG consumption is rising in almost all regions of the world. The use of LPG as a fuel in the domestic and commercial sectors is growing rapidly in many developing countries as access to LPG is expanding and markets are liberalized. These market developments create investment opportunities in many parts of the LPG industry – including terminal storage, storage, distribution of marketing and transport, mainly via sea transport.
LPG consumption in households is increasing throughout the world, especially in the Asia Pacific region, due to the region's vast and widespread population base. Increasing gas imports and rising demand for cleaner fuels, mainly from large emerging economies such as India and China, are expected to fuel global gas consumption in the near future.
Global LPG consumption is projected to exceed 380 million tons by 2026, largely due to the increased use of domestic gas, as well as planned oil refinery extensions across the globe.
The United States is at the top of the list with 52.8 million tonnes followed by China (27.6 million tonnes), Saudi Arabia (17.6 million tonnes), Japan with 16.9 million tonnes and India (16.3 million tonnes).
Asia is the world's largest LPG region. India, China, and Japan are now the countries that import the largest quantities of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). This is due to the efforts of these countries to substitute wood as a fuel for the focus on the domestic sector. The three countries together account for about 45% of the world LPG market.
China imported 2.2 million tonnes on a monthly basis in 2017 in the first place. Similarly, India imports an average of about 1.7 million tonnes of LPG for the same year and Japan ranked third in the order of about 1 million tonnes.
Major exporters for LPG are the countries of the Middle East and the United States of America. The United States of America is the world's largest LPG exporter and the largest LPG supplier for India. In 2017, due to production bottlenecks in the Middle East, the US market penetration. This growth is due to the ever-growing demand for fuel in Asia as well as to increased production in the United States.
US exports are mainly made in the form of propane. Out of these exports, about 50% is directed to Asia and from ~ 25% in Europe and Latin America respectively. LPG traffic worldwide is ~ 66% through shipping and the remaining 33% by road and rail.
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is used in almost all consumption areas and all regions of the world in a variety of energy or non-energy applications. Its major advantage is the flexibility of supply which plays an important role in many cases. Given that LPG is easy to pack and transport, it can be used in places not connected to energy networks.
In industrialized countries, LPG plays a secondary role by taking part in heating and hot water production in the domestic and commercial sectors. It is also used for cooking in the field of catering.
In contrast to many emerging and developing economies, LPG offers an alternative to using traditional biomass and fireplaces. In these countries, LPG essentially acts as a transitional fuel for sustainable future energy development.
LPG is also used in non-energy uses. For example, in the field of low carbon footprint cooling and limited harmful effects on atmospheric ozone. Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) pressurized such as propane and butane are often used as spray propellants by replacing chlorofluorocarbons.
Finally, LPG can be used as a raw material of producing petrochemicals (ethylene, propylene, olefins, aromatic hydrocarbons) as substitutes for naphtha, ethane and other chemical components.
Advantages and Benefits
LPG in the domestic sector has for many years been in a dominant position with primary use in cooking and in heating using LPG cylinders. Recently, the use of centralized gas installations with a central tank supply has been extended to operate cooking appliances, hot water production, and central heating operation.
LPG delivers instant hot water at the desired temperature 24 hours a day. In the kitchen, the temperature can be controlled with great precision, adjusting the flame to suit your needs. Recent developments include a new generation of “condensing” boilers with the use of exhaust gases, which significantly reduce fuel consumption.
LPG gas heating can be done either with portable heaters or with wall mounted boilers, which provide a number of advantages. They can easily replace systems that previously operated with other fuels, ensuring autonomous and economical operation, safety and respect for the environment.
Use in this area offers the consumer greater energy efficiency, greater economy than other fuels and energy sources, reduced maintenance costs and reduced emissions. Liquefied petroleum gas is used in commercial areas for the operation of central heating, the production of hot water and the focus on the operation of cooking appliances. It can also be used in more specialized uses such as washing machines and tumble driers in hotel units.
Liquefied-gas cooking appliances supplied by LPG cylinders, provide the professional with great speed in producing the products for immediate and efficient customer service. It is not accidental that, in all places of catering, liquefied petroleum gas is one of the most important choices. Accordingly, the use of LPG in bottles is also highly accepted by the domestic consumer who benefits from the use of LPG in cooking.
In the agricultural sector, LPG is used for space heating, product drying and the operation of greenhouses with significant energy consumption. Due to its clean combustion, LPG is ideal for a wide variety of applications and its use entails many advantages for livestock farming.
LPG is an ideal solution for Units that are needed at the production stage, high heat output and stable performance, combined with low cost. Typical Sectors are Metallurgy, Paper Production, Packaging, Dyeing, Food Production, Plastic Processing and Processing, Refrigeration Applications etc. In the industry, LPG can be used for space heating and for processes requiring heat, power supply for machine operation, food production, powering industrial furnaces, furnaces, furnaces, or forklift trucks. Fewer sources of energy are cleaner and produce less residue, providing controlled, high temperatures with negligible sulfur emissions.
LPG has a wide use in the construction sector. It is used for asphalt heating during road repair and construction, road sign lighting and headlamp lighting. Other areas where liquefied petroleum gas is used are hydraulic constructions, roof construction, welding, ore smelting and brick production.
AutoGas is a blend of butane-propane in a ratio of about 80% -20%. It is an alternative to Petrol and Petrol, combining ecological and economic advantages. It does not contain (mainly) Benzene, Polymeric Aromatic Hydrocarbons and has minimal sulfur.
The introduction of increasingly stringent measures on exhaust emissions combined with upward trends in liquid fuel prices makes liquefied petroleum gas the main alternative in the transport sector.
Today, more than 4,530,000 gas-fueled LPG (AutoGas) vehicles are in the European Union, most of which are passenger cars. At the same time, more than 22,500 filling stations are already in place. Vehicles using LPG have 12% lower CO2 emissions than their respective diesel vehicles. The car industry has significant growth prospects. It is estimated that the market share will reach 10% by 2030 from today's 2%.